In PCG I mentioned how a spaghetti facsimile could be created using ramen noodles and tomato cup-of-soup:
As an example, if you want to make a spaghetti meal, then choose ramen+pepperoni slices+tomato soup mix+dash of Italian seasoning+grated Parmesan cheese+group b.
Tomato instant soup mix has largely disappeared from the shelves here in the USA. I experimented in making my own by starting with canned tomato paste and spreading on a fruit-rollup sheet in my food dehydrator, about 1/4 inch thickness.
After drying at low heat for a few hours, peeling the “tomato rollup” and flipping and drying some more, I could still detect moisture trapped in the middle, so I cut into strips and dried some more.
Finally, after a few hours, the strips reached the level of crispness that allowed pulverizing in a powerful blender.
One could add potato flakes as an anti-caking agent, but I did not need to since the powder would be added to other ingredients right away.
Prepare in quart freezer zip bag:
1/2 teaspoon onion powder (not onion salt)
1/4 teaspoon seasoned pepper
1/4 cup skim milk powder
1 package ramen, crushed, without the flavor packet
1/4 cup tomato powder
1/4 cup grated parmesan cheese
1/4 teaspoon Italian seasoning (adjust amount to taste)
(pinch of garlic powder)
2 tablespoons dried parsley flakes
(1 small one-ounce packet pepperoni slices)
(1 generous squirt of olive oil for valuable hiker calories)
To prepare on the trail, boil 1 1/4 cup of water, pour into bag, close bag, mush bag until mixture is more-or-less uniform, and rehydrate for five minutes until the noodles are ready. If using the optional pepperoni packet, add now. Eat from the bag for a no-clean meal.
(Sometimes I need to write up these recipes so I can remember just what I did, for the next big trip.)
“If God dwells inside us like some people say, I sure hope He likes enchiladas, because that’s what He’s getting.”
— Jack Handy
New Mexico style enchiladas come either rolled or flat. Rolled is the kind familiar everywhere else. Flat enchiladas stack corn tortillas like pancakes, with cheese and chile sauce in between each layer (and no syrup or butter :-).
My trail version uses tortilla chips, saved throughout the year from bags of blue corn tortilla chips where the little broken pieces at the bottom of the bag are too small for dipping salsa. Thicker tortilla chips work somewhat better in this recipe, compared to thin “restaurant style” chips, since they get less mushy during rehydration. In consistency the trail version resembles flat enchies more than rolled, and like many trail recipes can be appreciated much more a few weeks into a long trip when hiker-hunger makes simple meals taste delicious. Perhaps this version is more like an enchilada casserole, or frito pie if you add the dried beans. (Know that frito pie is not ever really a pie.)
Our recipe follows the PCG dinner template, with cheddar cheese powder as the protein choice, crumbled tortilla chips as the carb, and New Mexico red chile powder as the spice. (Note that we skip the instant soup mix because we have enough salt with the tortilla chips and additional cheese.)
Prepare in quart freezer zip bag:
1/2 teaspoon onion powder
1/4 teaspoon seasoned pepper
1/4 cup skim milk powder
2 to 3 ounces broken tortilla chips
1/4 cup cheddar cheese powder (see below)
2 teaspoons Bueno or Chimayo mild New Mexico-style red chile powder (adjust amount to taste)
(1 small foil packet chicken for chicken enchies)
(1 generous squirt of olive oil for valuable hiker calories)
To prepare on the trail, boil 1 1/4 cup of water, pour into bag, close bag, mush bag until mixture is more-or-less uniform, and rehydrate for three to four minutes until ready. If using the optional chicken packet, add now. Eat from the bag for a no-clean meal.
Before my last long hike I ordered cheddar cheese powder through Amazon, a one pound bag for $13.79 with free shipping. (For small quantities, just steal the packet from a box of macaroni and cheese, but I needed a larger amount.) For my upcoming hike I want to make my own cheese powder– just to see how well it works, and possibly to save a few nickels.
Searching the web for ideas on drying cheese, I found this video:
The process requires blotting the shredded cheese frequently to remove grease. I wondered if it is possible to melt the cheese and skim off the fat prior to shredding, to eliminated the need for blotting. In a comment thread for this video someone mentioned starting with low-fat or no-fat cheese so one can skip blotting. I found fat-free shredded mild cheddar cheese at the local grocery, and purchased a bag to experiment.
A 7.5 ounce bag of no-fat shredded mild cheddar, cost us $2.50 on sale, dries on the plastic fruit roll-up tray in my food dehydrator in a few hours at low heat to half its original weight.
A blender or food processor makes a coarse powder from the dry cheese.
You might try further grinding with an electric flour mill to produce a fine cheese powder, but we got good results without this step. We tested with the enchilada recipe: ¡Que bueno!
Used this recipe, which makes a massive amount. Consider halves or quarters. As suggested in this post, I added a cup of whey protein powder. Before drying at 200F it tastes and smells exactly like gingerbread, with crunchy and chewy bits. One might double the amount of dried fruit and nuts if desired.
Cut into 2″ x 3″ pieces and spread out to dry at 200F, the result was very hard and will definitely require dunking in tea or cocoa to soften. Perhaps cutting into thinner slices a la biscotti prior to drying would work better.
Although not altogether practical as a modern trail food, I couldn’t resist baking some for historical purposes. Eat some while passing near Civil War battlefields.
Impressively hard when baked, these tiles will survive any jolts inside your food bag. If weevils are present, one should revel in the historical authenticity.
Tasty, but surely these are not sturdy enough to survive a long journey in your pack without major breakage.
Carefully packed in biscuit tins, they are known to survive an ocean journey, but perhaps not your food bag sans tin. I will try drying out a few as with Logan Bread, to see if that makes them more impervious.
In PCG, I describe adding boiling water to a zip freezer bag and waiting 5 minutes for the meal to cook/re-hydrate. A special container was described, with a small piece of corrugated cardboard for heat insulation on the bottom to make it comfortable to hold in one hand.
For this trip I wanted to upgrade to a food cozy to keep food warm longer. I still want to cook in a freezer bag, not a pot, to eliminate washing dishes. Serendipitously my choice of pots, Evernew Titanium ECA-266 500mL mug pot, is close enough in key dimensions to the quart size bag I would be using, so the food cozy can also double as a pot cozy.
I was going to use close cell foam from an old sleeping pad as insulation, until an Internet search showed many hikers are now using Reflectix(tm) insulation, available at big-box home stores, which resembles bubble-wrap with foil facing on both sides. Very light weight, the material is easy to cut with scissors and fastens together nicely with foil tape. Following the data-driven nature of this blog, I should have built cozies out of different materials (Reflectix, closed cell foam, and perhaps bubble wrap) and measured the temperature change in each, but sadly I’m running out of time. It’s less than a week until my flight and copious amounts of trip preparation still remain. This video shows some temperature measurements.
The series of photos shows how the pot cozy goes together, rather self-explanatory. No template is needed other than the pot to measure against. The materials are flexible and forgiving, so measurements need not be precise.
My cozy weighs 25 grams. Some weight reduction might be had by reducing tape, although I would prefer to do some field testing before trimming much more.
A word about freezer bags: Different brands may have different dimensions. Hefty brand quart slider freezer bags are labeled as 7 inches by 8 inches, but 7 is height. Another brand is listed as 7 x 7 3/4 inches, but the 7 refers to the width. The Hefty bag fits well in my cozy, but the other brand isn’t quite wide enough to fold over the top of the lip. My preference is to tape the bottom of the bag to be square-bottomed (see PCG) and to cut off the zipper and use a twist-tie. If one prefers to keep the zip closure, the bag still folds over the top of my cozy if you remove the slider.
To operate, place the freezer bag in the cozy, with the top of the bag folded down over the top edge of the cozy, pour in boiling water, and put on the lid. Alternatively, tie the bag closed with a twist-tie, and then add the lid. Wait five minutes or so for the meal to cook, and enjoy a warm meal. Consume with the bag still in the cozy, holding with one hand and a spoon in the other.
To measure the effect of the cozy, I added one cup boiling water (at 5000 feet altitude, 78F ambient air temperature) to two identical zip freezer bags (with square bottom modification mentioned above), with one bag bare on the counter-top closed with a twist-tie, and one bag in a cozy. After five minutes, the cozy bag water measured 181F, and the nekkid bag content was at 160F.
“If you limit your choices only to what seems possible or reasonable, you disconnect yourself from what you truly want, and all that is left is compromise. — Robert Fritz
In a previous post I described Protein Carbohydrate Goulash (PCG), an inexpensive method of creating backpacking dinners with vast variety, no cleanup, and a short cooking time, using ingredients commonly found in grocery stores. Now I describe experiments with a food dehydrator to see one might add even more choices for carbohydrates and legumes.
For each of these experimental trials, I re-hydrate by pouring 1/2 one cup boiling water in with a 1/2 cup portion of the food under test into a 1-quart freezer zip bag, sealing the bag, and waiting 5 minutes. Then I drain any remaining water, if any, and eat the food, testing for mouth-feel and whether the sample seems adequately cooked and re-hydrated. This will be referred to as the “rehydration procedure” for the rest of this post.
White basmati rice: 1 cup rice cooked with 2 cups water in a rice cooker, with a pinch of salt. Dehydrated on a fruit leather tray, not trying to separate clumps of rice very much. After rehydration procedure, rice was just the right consistency at 5 minutes. Recommended.
Brown basmati rice: 1 cup rice cooked with two cups water in a rice cooker, along with a pinch of salt to enhance shelf-life. Seemed a little crunchy after cooking, so will add more water next time. Yielded 400grams cooked. Spread onto plastic fruit leather tray in dehydrator, not bothering to separate all clumps. The sample dehydrated quickly (in dry New Mexico), retaining good grain appearance, and most clumps easily separated into individual grains. Dry weight was 185grams. After cooling, combined 1/2 cup of dry rice with 1/2 cup boiling water. After 5 minutes still a little crunchy, as before.
Cooked slightly less than 1 cup brown basmati with 3 1/2 cups water in rice cooker. Grains were more tender, more clumped, and slightly split. Dried to 181 grams. After cooling, combined 1/2 cup boiling water with 1/2 cup dried rice. Still too crunchy after 5 minutes, and even after 10 minutes. Not recommended.
Red wehani (Lundberg) rice: 1 cup rice cooked with 2-1/2 cups water in a rice cooker was tender with a slightly nutty texture, tasty and aromatic. After dehydration and rehydration procedure, was still partially crunchy and not sufficiently softened. As this is a form of brown rice, this is to be expected. Not recommended.
Black (forbidden) rice: 1 cup rice in water for two hours, rinsed and cooked with 2-1/2 cups water in a rice cooker produced firm long grains. After dehydration and rehydration, was significantly crunchy. Not recommended.
Short grain (Japanese-style white) rice: 1 cup rice with 1 3/4 cups water in rice cooker makes a sticky aromatic rice. I dehydrated in large clumps, yielding 210grams dry, and did not attempt to separate individual grains. After rehydration procedure, some clumps were still a little too chewy at 5 minutes.
Separated dried clumps into individual grains, using a few pulses in a food processor, and repeated rehydration procedure. Result was good consistency at five minutes. Next time will separate more before dehydrating. Recommended.
Black beans: 1 12ounce can of black beans, thoroughly rinsed. Noticed some beans were split along the side, which may affect re-hydration and ability to keep shape without mushing. Dehydrated at medium heat. Dry weight was 71 grams, and all beans partially open with some powder. Resembled “dried refried beans” item in the bulk foods section of grocery, except black beans instead of pinto. Fully rehydrated well under 5 minutes, but beans were partially mushed together like refried beans. Retained original flavor well, and may still be useful for bean soup or beans-with-rice dishes. Would other bean varieties retain individual bean shape better?
Tried again with a can of beans, drying at lowest heat setting. After rehydration beans stayed together slightly better, good enough to be used in rice-and-bean dishes. Recommended.
Garbanzo beans: 1 15ounce can drained and dried resulted in 131grams, partially split but all intact with no “powder”. After rehydration procedure beans were crunchy and not tender, and did not noticeably improve after 10 minutes. Not recommended.
Pinto beans: 1 15ounce can rinsed, drained, and dried resulted in 91 grams, partially split, with a small amount of breakage “powder”. Rehydration procedure resulted in partially crunchy beans after five minutes. Since pinto beans don’t have a thick skin, and the dried beans were mostly open, this is an unexpected result, so I repeated the rehydration trial, but doubled the hot water, with better results but still some crunchy bits. Not recommended.
(Ed note: Because this did not work, I have to wonder if I controlled for all the variables.)
Dried peas: Available in bulk food section of natural foods grocery as a snack. Retains green color and shape of peas, almost like freeze drying. After rehydrating for 5 minutes, was still slightly crunchy, like fresh peas instead of cooked peas. After waiting 30 minutes, still crunchy.
Next I tried partially crushing and splitting dry peas with the flat of a knife, and repeating the rehydration experiment. Still somewhat crunchy after 5 minutes, and also after 10 minutes. Not recommended.
(Oh well, it would have been nice if it had worked, but can still use them as a tasty snack for no-cook lunches.)
Black-eyed peas: One 15ounce can, drained and dried at lowest heat, yielded 77grams, with only minor splitting or breakage. The rehydration procedure produced good consistency and taste in much less than five minutes. Recommended.
Kidney beans: One 15ounce can, drained and dried at lowest heat, yielded 91 grams, with many beans split open but not breaking apart. After rehydration beans mostly retained shape and did not break apart. Took the full five minutes to get as soft as before drying, which was expected as this type of bean has a thicker firmer skin. Recommended.
Split peas: Cooked split peas, after dehydrating mostly retained shape without breakage. Rehydration procedure produced a mixture too-firm crunchy chunks and soft mush. Not recommended.
Mushrooms: 1 13.5ounce can of mushroom stems and pieces, drained and dried amounted to only 13grams, darkened and shriveled. After rehydration procedure ‘shrooms were still somewhat leathery and still tasted canned– not so good.
Fresh mushrooms sliced thin and dried retained their shape and color. After rehydration procedure shrooms had too much crunch.
Next I tried slicing mushroomsjust as thin as possible with a knife. These were almost the right consistency after rehydration, only slightly over-chewy.
Finally I tried using a potato peeler to shave ‘shrooms into paper-thin slices, and dried on a mesh screen. (Do not use the fruit leather tray.) After rehydration these were firm but not too chewy, still fragrant, and probably fine to be included in PCG with other ingredients. Recommended.
Whole wheat thin spaghetti noodles: Cooked 10 minutes until past al-dente to tender. Rinsed and chopped into spoon-size lengths and dehydrated on fruit leather tray. After rehydration procedure, noodles were al dente at 5 minutes. This works fine. Recommended.
Rotini: 1 cup cooked past al dente, cut each piece in half to fit better in a campers spoon (too labor intensive) then dried, weighing 101 grams. After rehydration procedure, not soft enough after five minutes. For comparison, did rehydration procedure on rotini that had not been cooked and then dried, and found this was way too crunchy. Not recommended.
So cooking pasta and re-drying appears to reduce cooking/rehydration time, but the thickness of the pasta matters. Butterfly noodles (farafelle) would be too thin, and angel hair pasta might cook fast enough even without precooking.
Rice noodles: Linguini-size flat noodles in the oriental foods section of the grocery, broken into 1cm lengths, with rehydration procedure were not sufficiently tender after 5 minutes. After cooking, draining, and drying, still were not soft enough after rehydration procedure. Side-by-side comparison showed precooking did not seem to reduce time to become tender. Not recommended.
We know that angel-hair style rice-stick noodles will soften within about 5 minutes. Was hoping to enjoy a nice wide rice noodle, but will need to settle for the thin skinny variety.
If you have a food dehydrator and a little time, pre-cooking and dehydrating thin wheat-based noodles, some legumes and rices, and thin-sliced mushrooms can be used to increase variety in fast-cook backpacking dinners such as PCG where you add boiling water and wait a few minutes.
All the successful trials of home-dehydrated food are being stored in 1-quart freezer zip bags at room temperature in darkness for three months, to verify shelf life and test re-hydration time and mouth-feel at the end of this period.
Addendum May 2012: Stored dried black beans, black-eyed peas, basmati rice, and thin whole wheat spaghetti noodles for two months, and performed the rehydration test and verified that each food tasted good with no hint of spoilage, and softened to a similar degree as in the original tests. Black beans and black-eyed peas now took a full 5 minutes to get to preferred level of softness, and noodles took 7 minutes. Did not notice a change in the basmati rice.